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* This book: If you’re a beginner, read the _Starting Photoshop for Dummies_ or _Adobe Photoshop for Dummies_ books. * _Digital Photography for Dummies_ : One of the first books to cover the basics of digital photography (at the time it was published). Beyond the basic tools are several plug-ins that can enhance your images with special effects that are not found in the Photoshop standard toolbox. Plug-ins are a part of Photoshop that a user installs to change the appearance of images. Of course, the big picture includes images in the digital realm, whether they’re still or video. Understanding the differences between various file formats helps you locate images and edit them well. # Figuring out the working principles As with any technical subject, you don’t have to know about the working principles of what makes an image to begin with to be able to use Photoshop. You’ll learn the basics in this chapter, and then proceed with hands-on experience in each of the following chapters. ## Choosing a file format If you’ve never used Photoshop before, you may not realize that images are stored on your computer in different file formats, depending on their intended use and the features you want to apply. Many new users come to Photoshop with a collection of JPEG files that were acquired with a digital camera and imported into the computer. However, many of these files were created in lower resolution in order to save computer storage space. They weren’t intended for viewing purposes at a web or print publication size. So, where do you go to start? Select images to work on first, and make sure that you’re working with the original image files, not resized or converted images. To open an image for editing, double-click the file to start the _Nondestructive Editing_ menu. This enables you to open the image for editing without first saving the image, as shown in Figure 2-1. If you have made an adjustment to an image that you don’t want to lose when you save, you can use the Undo command.

require „custom“ Custom::Example = Class.new do def initialize @addition = ‚+‘ end def call(context, arg1, arg2) arg1 + arg2 end def add(context, arg1, arg2) context.push(@addition) call(context, arg1, arg2) context.pop end end Custom.bind_methods({ :addition => :+ }) do define_method(:+ => :addition) end class Foo; end Custom.new do def self.each_facet(context, per_facet) context.instance_eval do each_facet = per_facet.inject(Foo) do |result, it| result = it.call(context) result end each_facet.instance_eval(&Foo.to_private) end end class Q: Finding the smallest $r$ in $\frac{a}{b}=\frac{c}{d}$ Let $a,b,c,d\in\mathbb{Q}$ be distinct and let $r\in\mathbb{R}$ be the smallest rational number such that $$\frac{a}{b}=\frac{c}{d}=r$$ I need to find a bound on $|a-rd|$, and I know it can’t be more than $a$ or $rd$, and that for $a,b,d\in\mathbb{Z}$ it will be $\sqrt{4abc+9d^2}$, but how do I get a bound for $\mathbb{Q}$ without induction? The only idea I have is if $a=d$, then I would have

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Q: How to check if an object is in itself an object I want to check if an object in Javascript is really an object. If it is an Object or a Vector- or something like that, I want to run a function if it is such an object, else I want to throw an error. The function has the following signature: function somefunc(obj, arg1) Eg. function somefunc(obj) { if (obj is Object) { // do something } else { // throw error because obj is not an object } } somefunc({a: „b“}) Somehow, I cannot get the „is Object“-call to work. How do I check in JavaScript, if an object is an object? A: You are checking if obj is an object and not if obj is an object of type object. This leads to throwing TypeError. You can instead check if typeof obj === ‚object‘ or typeof obj === ‚object‘ but that won’t work because it will also return true for all user defined objects function somefunc(obj) { if (typeof obj === ‚object‘ && obj instanceof Object) { // do something } else { console.log(’not an object‘); } } somefunc({a: „b“}) somefunc({}) console.log(‚——————————————‚); var myvector = { vector_1: [0, 1, 2], vector_2: {a: „b“} }; somefunc(myvector); console.log(‚——————————————‚); somefunc([]) console.log(‚——————————————‚); function int_func() { console.log(‚int‘); } somefunc(int_func) console.log(‚——————————————‚); somefunc(„hello“) console.log(‚——————————–